Increase in sedentary behavior can contribute to cardiovascular health deterioration

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The adverse side effects of the social isolation measures implemented to combat COVID-19 include an increase in sedentary behavior and physical inactivity, which can contribute to a deterioration in cardiovascular health even in the short term. Older people and people with chronic diseases tend to be most affected.
The warning comes from a review article published in the American Journal of Physiology by researchers at the University of São Paulo's Medical School (FM-USP) in Brazil. According to the authors, the slogan "Stay at home" broadcast by governments and chief medical officers is unquestionably valid under the present circumstances but should be coupled with another: "Don't stay still."

"You need at least 150 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity per week to be considered active by the World Health Organization [WHO] and medical associations. Gyms, fitness centers and sports facilities will be open to a limited extent in the months ahead, even after confinement and quarantine measures are lifted. Physical activity in the home is a worthwhile alternative," said Tiago Peçanha, first author of the article. Peçanha has a postdoctoral research scholarship from FAPESP.

The article reviews the scientific literature to compile evidence for the effects of short periods of physical inactivity on the cardiovascular system. Some of the studies cited show that between one and four weeks of bed rest can lead to cardiac atrophy and significant narrowing of peripheral blood vessels. Peçanha stressed that this is an aggressive model and does not reflect what happens during social confinement or quarantine. "However, other experiments reviewed in the article are a good match," he said.

In one of these experiments, volunteers were asked to reduce their physical activity so that they took less than 5,000 steps in a week instead of more than 10,000 steps as usual. At the end of the period, the researchers observed a reduction in the diameter of the brachial artery (the main blood vessel in the arm), loss of blood vessel elasticity, and damage to the endothelium (the inner cell lining of all veins and arteries).

In other experiments, volunteers stayed seated for periods varying between three and six hours. This amount of inactivity was…
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