French mathematician
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"Galois" redirects here. For other uses, see Gallois (disambiguation)

Évariste Galois ( ;[1] French: [evaʁist ɡalwa]; 25 October 1811 – 31 May 1832) was a French mathematician and political activist. While still in his teens, he was able to determine a necessary and sufficient condition for a polynomial to be solvable by radicals, thereby solving a problem standing for 350 years. His work laid the foundations for Galois theory and group theory,[2] two major branches of abstract algebra, and the subfield of Galois connections. He died at age 20 from wounds suffered in a duel.[3]

Life [ edit ]

Early life [ edit ]

Galois was born on 25 October 1811 to Nicolas-Gabriel Galois and Adélaïde-Marie (née Demante).[2][4] His father was a Republican and was head of Bourg-la-Reine's liberal party. His father became mayor of the village[2] after Louis XVIII returned to the throne in 1814. His mother, the daughter of a jurist, was a fluent reader of Latin and classical literature and was responsible for her son's education for his first twelve years.

The Cour d'honneur of the Lycée Louis-le-Grand , which Galois attended as a boy.

In October 1823, he entered the Lycée Louis-le-Grand,[5] At the age of 14, he began to take a serious interest in mathematics.[5]

He found a copy of Adrien-Marie Legendre's Éléments de Géométrie, which, it is said, he read "like a novel" and mastered at the first reading. At 15, he was reading the original papers of Joseph-Louis Lagrange, such as the Réflexions sur la résolution algébrique des équations[citation needed] which likely motivated his later work on equation theory, and Leçons sur le calcul des fonctions, work intended for professional mathematicians, yet his classwork remained uninspired, and his teachers accused him of affecting ambition and originality in a negative way.[4]

Budding mathematician [ edit ]

In 1828, he attempted the entrance examination for the École Polytechnique, the most prestigious institution for mathematics in…
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