How does Apple Private Relay Work?
7 min read
fairly easy
A summary of what we know about Apple Private Relay
What is Apple Private Relay?

Private Relay is an attempt by Apple to change the way traffic is routed from user to internet service and back. This is designed to break the relationship between user IP address and information about that user, reducing the digital footprint of that user and eliminating certain venues of advertising information.

It is a new feature in the latest version of iOS and MacOS that will be launching in "beta mode". It is available to all users who pay Apple for iCloud storage and I became interested in it after watching the WWDC session about preparing for it.


Private Relay provides real value to users, but also fundamentally changes the way network traffic flows across the internet for those users. Network administrators, programmers and owners of businesses which rely on IP addresses from clients for things like whitelisting, advertising and traffic analysis should be aware of this massive change. It is my belief that this change is not getting enough attention in the light of the CSAM scanning.

What happens when you turn on Private Relay?

The following traffic is impacted by Private Relay

All Safari web browsing

All DNS queries

All insecure HTTP traffic

Traffic from those sources will no longer take the normal route to their destination, instead being run through servers controlled by either Apple or its partners. They will ingress at a location close to you and then egress somewhere else, with an IP address known to be from your "region". In theory websites will still know roughly where you are coming from, but won't be able to easily combine that with other information they know about your IP address to enrich targeted advertisements. Access logs and other raw sources of data will also be less detailed, with the personally identifiable information that is your IP address no longer listed on logs for every website you visit.

Why is Apple doing this?

When you go to a website, you are identified in one of a thousand…
Mathew Duggan
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