Antônio Petrus Kalil (March 18, 1925 - January 28, 2019), known as Turcão ("Big Turk"), was one of the operators of the jogo do bicho ("the animal game"), a popular illegal lottery in Brazil. Kalil ran the game in a number of towns, including Niteroi, and was one of 14 bicheiros or banqueiros—"bankers" as the game's operators are known—who were sentenced to six years' imprisonment in May 1993 for operating a criminal association. Kalil's brother Jose, known as "Zinho", was among those convicted. Denise Frossard, the judge in the case, wrote in 2007 that it was the first time the existence of a mafia-type organization had been recognized in Brazil. According to Frossard, Kalil was one of the organization's bosses in 1981. In April 2007, he was among 24 people charged for involvement with the illegal lottery, as well as bingo parlours and the distribution of slot machines. On March 13, 2012, he was sentenced to 48 years in prison and a fine of BRL 11 million (about US$6 million) for conspiracy and corruption, together with the other bicho bosses Anísio Abraão David and Capitão Guimarães.