The Association for the Scientific Study of Anomalous Phenomena (ASSAP) is a United Kingdom-based education and research charity, dedicated to scientifically investigate alleged paranormal and anomalous phenomena, with a view to approaching the subject in its entirety rather than looking into the psychology of individual phenomenon. The charity also incorporates various smaller groups, providing support during investigations. Paranormal Awakening and the Midlands Ghost Research Society belong to this category. They also hold training days for would-be investigators and provide research grants. The charity also has sub-committees such as the Circles Research Program, who investigate crop circles. On average they hold 1,000 investigations a year. ASSAP's refusal to accept populist explanations for ghosts and its focus on recording of experience rather than phenomena has garnered cautious praise from skeptics. The first part of their investigative process, which is used to detect obvious fraud, is kept a secret from the public.