Association of Political Organisations of the Indonesian People (Indonesian: Pemufakatan Perhimpunan-perhimpunan Politik Kebangsaan Indonesia, (abbrev: PPPKI), was one of the key anti-colonial political umbrella organizations championing for independence in Indonesia (present-day of Netherlands East Indies) during Dutch colonial rule. PPPKI attempt at uniting disparate key pre-Second World War pan-Indies political reformist and nationalism movements such as Partai Sosialis Indonesia (Socialist Party of Indonesia), Budi Utomo (Great Endeavour), Partai Nasional Indonesia (Indonesian National Party), Paguyuban Pasundan, Jong Sumatranen Bond (Association of Sumatran Youth), Pemuda Kaum Betawi, and Kelompok Studi Indonesia. PPPKI was established on 17 December 1927 at Bandung, notably by then PNI's charismatic leader and future first President of Indonesia, Sukarno, in an attempt to unite nationalist and reformist efforts against colonial rule in the Netherlands East Indies, championing for independence. However, PPPKI was conflict-ridden from the start, and key members disagreed on many policies that the umbrella organisation should undertake, most significantly the argument between radical members of PPPKI advocating non-cooperation with the colonialists, and moderate members opposing such a stance. While PPPKI failed to achieve most of its intended goals, PPPKI was instrumental in the proclamation of the Sumpah Pemuda (Youth Oath) of 1928, in which nationalist symbols of Indonesia were adopted, namely, Bahasa Indonesia - a variant of Bahasa Melayu, was named the lingua franca; the presentation of "Indonesia Raya", the national anthem, and the red-white national flag, or Sang Saka Merah Putih, symbolising the Indonesian independence movement.