Enzyme

Class of biological molecules with catalytic activity
trends
2021FebruaryMarchAprilMayJune0500
media
equivalent class
described at URL
retrieved
June 11, 2015
Commons category
Enzymes
Wikipedia creation date
9/29/2001
Wikipedia incoming links count
Wikipedia opening text
Enzymes /ˈɛnzaɪmz/ are both proteins and biological catalysts (biocatalysts). Catalysts accelerate chemical reactions. The molecules upon which enzymes may act are called substrates, and the enzyme converts the substrates into different molecules known as products. Almost all metabolic processes in the cell need enzyme catalysis in order to occur at rates fast enough to sustain life. Metabolic pathways depend upon enzymes to catalyze individual steps. The study of enzymes is called enzymology and a new field of pseudoenzyme analysis has recently grown up, recognising that during evolution, some enzymes have lost the ability to carry out biological catalysis, which is often reflected in their amino acid sequences and unusual 'pseudocatalytic' properties. Enzymes are known to catalyze more than 5,000 biochemical reaction types. Other biocatalysts are catalytic RNA molecules, called ribozymes. Enzymes' specificity comes from their unique three-dimensional structures. Like all catalysts, enzymes increase the reaction rate by lowering its activation energy. Some enzymes can make their conversion of substrate to product occur many millions of times faster. An extreme example is orotidine 5'-phosphate decarboxylase, which allows a reaction that would otherwise take millions of years to occur in milliseconds. Chemically, enzymes are like any catalyst and are not consumed in chemical reactions, nor do they alter the equilibrium of a reaction. Enzymes differ from most other catalysts by being much more specific. Enzyme activity can be affected by other molecules: inhibitors are molecules that decrease enzyme activity, and activators are molecules that increase activity. Many therapeutic drugs and poisons are enzyme inhibitors. An enzyme's activity decreases markedly outside its optimal temperature and pH, and many enzymes are (permanently) denatured when exposed to excessive heat, losing their structure and catalytic properties. Some enzymes are used commercially, for example, in the synthesis of antibiotics. Some household products use enzymes to speed up chemical reactions: enzymes in biological washing powders break down protein, starch or fat stains on clothes, and enzymes in meat tenderizer break down proteins into smaller molecules, making the meat easier to chew.
Wikipedia redirect
Apoenzyme
Holoenzyme
Enzymes
ENZ
Enzyme action
Mechanisms of enzyme action
Enzymatic
Lock-and-key model (enzyme)
Enyzme
Enzymology
Biocatalyst
Biocatalysts
Lock and Key Theory
Enzyme-substrate complex
ENZYME STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
Holoenzymes
Apoenzymes
Enzymatically
Lock and key model
Encyme
Ensyme
Enyme characteristics
Cofactors and coenzymes
Coenzymes and cofactors
Induced fit model
Enzymic
Enzyme preparations
Lock-and-key model
Lock and key theory
Enzime
Haloenzyme
Enzyme type
Regulation mechanism
Enzyme regulation
Carbamidase
Wikipedia URL
BabelNet ID
Bashkir encyclopedia (Bashkir version) ID
BNCF Thesaurus ID
Encyclopædia Britannica Online ID
Encyclopædia Universalis ID
Freebase ID
Getty AAT ID
GND ID
Gran Enciclopèdia Catalana ID
Great Russian Encyclopedia Online ID
IUPAC GoldBook ID
JSTOR topic ID
Library of Congress authority ID
MeSH descriptor ID
National Diet Library Auth ID
OmegaWiki Defined Meaning
Open Food Facts ingredient ID
PSH ID
Quora topic ID
Treccani ID
UNESCO Thesaurus ID
WikiSkripta ID
external links