Apple Lisa

Personal computer by KASA
The Lisa
discontinued date
January 1, 1985
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Apple Lisa
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Lisa is a desktop computer developed by Apple, released on January 19, 1983. It is one of the first personal computers to present a graphical user interface (GUI) in a machine aimed at individual business users. Development of the Lisa began in 1978, and it underwent many changes during the development period before shipping at US$9,995 with a five-megabyte hard drive. The Lisa was challenged by a relatively high price, insufficient software library, unreliable Apple FileWare ("Twiggy") floppy disks, and the immediate release of the cheaper and faster Macintosh — yielding lifelong sales of only 10,000 units in two years. In 1982, after Steve Jobs was forced out of the Lisa project, he appropriated the existing Macintosh project, which Jef Raskin had conceived in 1979 and led to develop a text-based appliance computer. Jobs immediately redefined Macintosh as a cheaper and more usable version of the graphical Lisa. Macintosh was launched in January 1984, quickly surpassing Lisa sales, and assimilating increasing numbers of Lisa staff. Newer Lisa models were introduced that addressed its faults and lowered its price considerably, but the platform failed to achieve favorable sales compared to the much less expensive Mac. The final model, the Lisa 2/10, was modified as the high end of the Macintosh series, the Macintosh XL. Considered a commercial failure but with technical acclaim, the Lisa introduced a number of advanced features that would not reappear on the Macintosh or the "PC" platform for many years. Among those is an operating system with protected memory and a more document-oriented workflow. The hardware overall is more advanced than the Macintosh, with a hard drive, support for up to 2 megabytes (MB) of random-access memory (RAM), expansion slots, and a larger, higher-resolution display. One notable exception is that the 68000 processor in the Macintosh is clocked at 7.89 megahertz (MHz) and the Lisa's is 5 MHz. The complexity of the primarily Pascal-coded Lisa operating system and its associated programs (most notably its office suite) — as well as the ad hoc protected memory implementation (forced by Motorola not having provided an MMU) — is highly-demanding for the CPU (which had no co-processor to speed graphical output) and, to some extent, the storage system. As a result of cost-cutting measures designed to bring the system more into the consumer bracket, advanced software, and other factors — such as the delayed availability of the 68000 and its impact on the design process, Lisa feels sluggish overall. The workstation-tier (albeit at the low end of that spectrum) price and lack of much of a technical application library made it a difficult sell for much of the technical workstation market. However, the success of the earlier IBM PC and Apple's decision to compete with itself, mainly via the Macintosh, also were severe impediments for the platform.
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Lisa OS
Lisa 2/10
Lisa 2/5
Apple lisa
Lisa Office System
Lisa PC
Local Integrated System Architecture
Apple Lisa 2
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