Antisemitic canards are unfounded rumors or false allegations that are defamatory toward Judaism as a religion, or defamatory toward Jews as an ethnic or religious group. Since at least the Middle Ages, they often form part of broader Jewish conspiracy theories. Some antisemitic canards date back to the birth of Christianity, in particular an alleged Jewish responsibility for the death of Jesus. In medieval Europe, the scope of antisemitic canards expanded and was even used as a basis for regular persecutions and formal expulsions of Jews in England, France, Germany, Spain and Portugal. In these times it was widely believed that Jews caused epidemics like the Black Death by poisoning wells and ritually consumed the blood of Christians. Starting in the 19th century, the antisemitic notion emerged that Jews were plotting to establish control over the world and dominate by the promotion of capitalism and engagement in banking and finance. In the 20th century antisemitic canards have been added that Jews were also responsible for the propagation of Communism and would try to dominate the news media industry. Those antisemitic canards with political and economical context became political myths that were not only central to the worldview of Adolf Hitler, but also persist until today. Holocaust denial is also considered an antisemitic conspiracy theory because of its position that the Holocaust is a hoax designed to advance the interests of Jews and justify the creation of the State of Israel.