A saying is any concisely written or spoken expression that is especially memorable because of its meaning or style. Sayings are categorized as follows: Aphorism: a general, observational truth; "a pithy expression of wisdom or truth".[page needed] Adage, proverb, or saw: a widely known or popular aphorism that has gained credibility by long use or tradition. Apophthegm: "an edgy, more cynical aphorism; such as, 'Men are generally more careful of the breed of their horses and dogs than of their children.'" Cliché or bromide: an unoriginal and overused saying. Platitude: a cliché that is unsuccessfully presented as though it were meaningful, original, or effective. Epigram: a clever and often poetic written saying that comments on a specific person, idea, or thing; it especially denominates such a saying that is conspicuously put at the beginning of a text. Epitaph: a saying in honor of a decedent, often engraved on a headstone or plaque. Epithet: a descriptive word or saying already widely associated with a specific person, idea, or thing. Idiom: a saying that has only a non-literal interpretation; "an expression whose meaning can't be derived simply by hearing it, such as 'Kick the bucket.'" Four-character idiom: Chengyu: Chinese four-character idioms Sajaseong-eo: Korean form of four-character idioms Yojijukugo: Japanese form of four-character idioms Mantra: a religious, mystical, or other spiritual saying that is repeated, for example, in meditation. Maxim: (1) an instructional expression of a general principle or rule of morality or (2) simply a synonym for "aphorism"; they include: Brocards Gnomes Legal maxims Motto: a saying used frequently by a person or group to summarize its general mission. Slogan: a motto with the goal of persuading. Quip: a clever or humorous saying based on an observation. Witticism: a saying that is clever and usually humorous, and notable for its form or style just as much as, or more than, its meaning.